Carotid Cavernous Fistula (Grand Rounds)

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Chief Complaint

“Red and puffy Right Eye”


History of Present Illness

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Medical History

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External Examination

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Fundus Examination

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Imaging Testing

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Differential Diagnosis

Infections e.g., orbital cellulitis, mucormycosis and tuberculosis etc. Inflammations e.g., sarcoidosis, orbital pseudotumor and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome etc. Orbital vasculitis e.g., polyarteritis nodosa and Wegener's granulomatosis etc.

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Final Diagnosis

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CCFs classified based on anatomical, etiological and hemodynamic factors.

Anatomically CCF divided into fast/ high-flow or slow/low-flow dynamics

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