From EyeWiki

Below is a list of helpful mnemonics and classic clinical triads to aid resident ophthalmologists in preparing for OKAPs and Board exams


Principal Corneal Stromal dystrophies, abnormality and staining - "Marylin Monroe Always Gets Her Men in L. A. County"

Macular dystrophy - Mucopolysaccharide - Alcian blue

Granular dystrophy - Hyaline materials - Masson trichrome

Lattice dystrophy - Amyloid - Congo red


Anterior angle structures (posterior to anterior) - “I Can’t See This Stuff"


Ciliary body

Scleral spur

Trabecular meshwork

Schwalbe's line


Congenital corneal opacity/clouding - "STUMPED"


Tears in Descemets



Peter's anomaly

Edema: Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED)

Dermoid (birth trauma)

Congenital toxoplasmosis (Sabin’s Triad) - Triad

  1. Hydrocephalus
  2. Intracranial calcifications
  3. Chorioretinitis

Congenital syphilis (Hutchinson’s triad) - Triad

  1. Interstitial keratitis
  2. CN VIII deafness
  3. Hutchinson teeth

Duane’s retraction syndrome subtypes - Count the "Ds"

Type 1: abDuction affected

Type 2: aDDuction affected

Type 3: abDuction and aDDuction affected

Leukocoria - "nPRREDICCCTIV"

Norrie disease

Persistent fetal vasculature


Retinopathy of prematurity


Dysplasia of retina

Inflammatory cycliticmembrane

Congential cataract

Coats disease

Coloboma of choroid or optic disc


Incontinentia pigmenti

Vitreal- Famialial exudative vitreal retinopathy


Angioid streak etiology - “PEPSI HAM”

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum


Paget's disease of bone

Sickle cell anemia or other hemoglobinopathy (Thalassemias)




Marfans syndrome

Susac syndrome - Triad

  1. Encephalopathy
  2. Hearing loss
  3. Retinal artery branch occlusions ("boxcar” segmentation)

Acute retinal necrosis - Triad

  1. Occlusive retinal arteriolitis
  2. Vitritis
  3. Multifocal yellow-white peripheral retinitis

Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome - Triad

  1. Multiple white, atrophic choroidal scars (punched out) = “histo spots"
  2. Peripapillary pigment changes
  3. CNV (causing maculopathy and no vitreous cells)


Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy - Triad

  1. Hyperemia and elevation of disc (although disc is swollen it does not leak)
  2. Peripapillary telangiectasia
  3. Tortuosity of medium sized retinal arteioles

Optic nerve sheath meningioma - Triad

  1. Painless, slowly progressive vision loss
  2. Optic atrophy
  3. Optociliary shunt vessels

Miller-Fisher syndrome - Tetrad

  1. Facial diplegia
  2. ophthalmoplegia
  3. Ataxia
  4. Areflexia

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis syndrome (Wegener’s) - Triad

  1. Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of upper and lower respiratory tract
  2. Focal segemental glomerulonephritis
  3. Necrotizing vasculitis of small arteries and veins


Blepharophimosis - Triad

  1. Ptosis
  2. Epicanthus inversus
  3. Telecanthus

Ocular Oncology

Ocular Melanoma high risk features versus nevus-" To Find Small Ocular Melanoma Using Helpful Hints Daily"

Thickness - >2mm

Fluid - Subretinal fluid


Orange pigment

Margin - <3mm from optic disc

Ultrasonic hollowness - low internal reflectivity (versus solid)

Halo - ABSENCE of halo (circular band of depigmentation)

Drusen - ABSENCE of drusen