EyeWiki:Featured article/March 15, 2020

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Featured Article for March 14, 2020

Amniotic Membrane Transplant

Amniotic membrane, or amnion, is the innermost layer of the placenta and consists of a thick basement membrane and an avascular stromal matrix. Amniotic membrane transplantation has been used as a graft or as a dressing in different surgical subspecialties. In the field of ophthalmology, it is used broadly 1) to reconstruct the ocular surface after various procedures; 2) as a graft for ocular surface melts; and 3) as a bandage to promote healing in cases of persistent epithelial defects or ocular surface inflammation. All of these indications make use of amniotic membrane's ability to promote healing.

Live fetal membrane, which included both amnion and chorion, was first documented by De Rotth in 1940 for use in conjunctival reconstruction. A very low success rate was reported. During the same year, Brown used rabbit peritoneum as a temporary patch for ocular surface burns which Sorsby later modified with human amniotic membrane in 1946 and 1947. In 1995 Kim and Tseng reintroduced the idea of amniotic membrane for ophthalmic use which has since become increasingly popular.