Difference between revisions of "Optic Disc Hemorrhage"

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= Disease: Disc Hemorrhages  =
 
= Disease: Disc Hemorrhages  =
  
Disc hemorrhages are splinter or flame-shaped hemorrhages oriented perpendicular to the optic disc margin.1–4 Classically, these hemorrhages are located in the prelaminar optic disc, cross the peripapillary zone, and extend into the adjacent superficial retinal nerve fiber layer1,3,4, although they may not occupy the entire length from disc to retina.4 Alternately, deeper disc hemorrhages may appear round and blotchy.3 Less commonly, a disc hemorrhage may be noted in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer reaching within one disc diameter of the optic disc margin.2  
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Disc hemorrhages are splinter or flame-shaped hemorrhages oriented perpendicular to the optic disc margin.<ref name=":0">Uhler TA, Piltz-Seymour J. Optic disc hemorrhages in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: implications and recommendations. ''Curr Opin Ophthalmol''. 2008;19(2):89–94.</ref><ref name=":1">Schacknow PN, Samples JR eds. ''The glaucoma book: a practical, evidence-based approach to patient care''. New York: Springer; 2010.</ref><ref name=":2">Drance SM. Disc hemorrhages in the glaucomas. ''Surv Ophthalmol''. 1989;33(5):331–337.</ref><ref name=":3">Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Feuer WJ, et al. Detection and prognostic significance of optic disc hemorrhages during the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. ''Ophthalmology''. 2006;113(12):2137–2143.</ref> Classically, these hemorrhages are located in the prelaminar optic disc, cross the peripapillary zone, and extend into the adjacent superficial retinal nerve fiber layer,<ref name=":0" /><ref name=":2" /><ref name=":3" /> although they may not occupy the entire length from disc to retina.<ref name=":3" /> Alternately, deeper disc hemorrhages may appear round and blotchy.<ref name=":2" /> Less commonly, a disc hemorrhage may be noted in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer reaching within one disc diameter of the optic disc margin.<ref name=":1" />  
  
  

Revision as of 14:58, November 7, 2014


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Disease Entity

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Disease: Disc Hemorrhages

Disc hemorrhages are splinter or flame-shaped hemorrhages oriented perpendicular to the optic disc margin.[1][2][3][4] Classically, these hemorrhages are located in the prelaminar optic disc, cross the peripapillary zone, and extend into the adjacent superficial retinal nerve fiber layer,[1][3][4] although they may not occupy the entire length from disc to retina.[4] Alternately, deeper disc hemorrhages may appear round and blotchy.[3] Less commonly, a disc hemorrhage may be noted in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer reaching within one disc diameter of the optic disc margin.[2]


Etiology

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Risk Factors

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General Pathology

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Pathophysiology

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Primary prevention

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Diagnosis

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History

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Physical examination

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Signs

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Symptoms

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Clinical diagnosis

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Diagnostic procedures

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Laboratory test

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Differential diagnosis

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Management

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General treatment

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Medical therapy

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Medical follow up

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Surgery

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Surgical follow up

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Complications

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Prognosis

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Additional Resources

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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Uhler TA, Piltz-Seymour J. Optic disc hemorrhages in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: implications and recommendations. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19(2):89–94.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Schacknow PN, Samples JR eds. The glaucoma book: a practical, evidence-based approach to patient care. New York: Springer; 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Drance SM. Disc hemorrhages in the glaucomas. Surv Ophthalmol. 1989;33(5):331–337.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Feuer WJ, et al. Detection and prognostic significance of optic disc hemorrhages during the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(12):2137–2143.