Difference between revisions of "Optic Disc Hemorrhage"

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|Date reviewed=November 7, 2014
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|Date reviewed=November 8, 2014
 
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Article in progress.
 
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= Disease Entity =
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= Summary =
 
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= Disease Entity =
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= Disease: Disc Hemorrhages =
 
 
= Disease: Disc Hemorrhages =
 
  
 
Disc hemorrhages are splinter or flame-shaped hemorrhages oriented perpendicular to the optic disc margin.<ref name=":0">Uhler TA, Piltz-Seymour J. Optic disc hemorrhages in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: implications and recommendations. ''Curr Opin Ophthalmol''. 2008;19(2):89–94.</ref><ref name=":1">Schacknow PN, Samples JR eds. ''The glaucoma book: a practical, evidence-based approach to patient care''. New York: Springer; 2010.</ref><ref name=":2">Drance SM. Disc hemorrhages in the glaucomas. ''Surv Ophthalmol''. 1989;33(5):331–337.</ref><ref name=":3">Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Feuer WJ, et al. Detection and prognostic significance of optic disc hemorrhages during the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. ''Ophthalmology''. 2006;113(12):2137–2143.</ref>  Classically, these hemorrhages are located in the prelaminar optic disc, cross the peripapillary zone, and extend into the adjacent superficial retinal nerve fiber layer,<ref name=":0" /><ref name=":2" /><ref name=":3" /> although they may not occupy the entire length from disc to retina.<ref name=":3" />  Alternately, deeper disc hemorrhages may appear round and blotchy.<ref name=":2" />  Less commonly, a disc hemorrhage may be noted in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer reaching within one disc diameter of the optic disc margin.<ref name=":1" />   
 
Disc hemorrhages are splinter or flame-shaped hemorrhages oriented perpendicular to the optic disc margin.<ref name=":0">Uhler TA, Piltz-Seymour J. Optic disc hemorrhages in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: implications and recommendations. ''Curr Opin Ophthalmol''. 2008;19(2):89–94.</ref><ref name=":1">Schacknow PN, Samples JR eds. ''The glaucoma book: a practical, evidence-based approach to patient care''. New York: Springer; 2010.</ref><ref name=":2">Drance SM. Disc hemorrhages in the glaucomas. ''Surv Ophthalmol''. 1989;33(5):331–337.</ref><ref name=":3">Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Feuer WJ, et al. Detection and prognostic significance of optic disc hemorrhages during the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. ''Ophthalmology''. 2006;113(12):2137–2143.</ref>  Classically, these hemorrhages are located in the prelaminar optic disc, cross the peripapillary zone, and extend into the adjacent superficial retinal nerve fiber layer,<ref name=":0" /><ref name=":2" /><ref name=":3" /> although they may not occupy the entire length from disc to retina.<ref name=":3" />  Alternately, deeper disc hemorrhages may appear round and blotchy.<ref name=":2" />  Less commonly, a disc hemorrhage may be noted in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer reaching within one disc diameter of the optic disc margin.<ref name=":1" />   
  
 
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= Etiology and Pathophysiology =
== Etiology ==
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== Mechanical and Vascular Hypotheses ==
 
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== The Relationship to Rim Notches ==
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= Epidemiology =
 
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== Prevalence ==
== Risk Factors  ==
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== Associations ==
 
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=== Ocular ===
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=== Systemic ===
 
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= Physical Examination and Clinical Diagnosis =
== General Pathology  ==
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== Location ==
 
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== Duration and Recurrence ==
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= Diagnostic Procedures =
 
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= Differential diagnosis  =
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= Prognosis =
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== Development of Glaucoma ==
 
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=== Do all individuals with disc hemorrhage develop glaucoma? ===
== General treatment ==
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== Progression of Glaucoma ==
 
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=== Exfoliation Glaucoma ===
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=== Recurrent Disc Hemorrhages ===
 
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= Future Work =
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Revision as of 17:23, November 8, 2014


Article in progress.

Summary

Disease Entity

Disease: Disc Hemorrhages

Disc hemorrhages are splinter or flame-shaped hemorrhages oriented perpendicular to the optic disc margin.[1][2][3][4] Classically, these hemorrhages are located in the prelaminar optic disc, cross the peripapillary zone, and extend into the adjacent superficial retinal nerve fiber layer,[1][3][4] although they may not occupy the entire length from disc to retina.[4] Alternately, deeper disc hemorrhages may appear round and blotchy.[3] Less commonly, a disc hemorrhage may be noted in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer reaching within one disc diameter of the optic disc margin.[2]

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Mechanical and Vascular Hypotheses

The Relationship to Rim Notches

Epidemiology

Prevalence

Associations

Ocular

Systemic

Physical Examination and Clinical Diagnosis

Location

Duration and Recurrence

Diagnostic Procedures

Differential diagnosis

Management

Prognosis

Development of Glaucoma

Do all individuals with disc hemorrhage develop glaucoma?

Progression of Glaucoma

Exfoliation Glaucoma

Recurrent Disc Hemorrhages

Future Work

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Uhler TA, Piltz-Seymour J. Optic disc hemorrhages in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: implications and recommendations. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19(2):89–94.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Schacknow PN, Samples JR eds. The glaucoma book: a practical, evidence-based approach to patient care. New York: Springer; 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Drance SM. Disc hemorrhages in the glaucomas. Surv Ophthalmol. 1989;33(5):331–337.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Feuer WJ, et al. Detection and prognostic significance of optic disc hemorrhages during the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(12):2137–2143.