Optic Disc Hemorrhage

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Disease Entity

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Disease: Disc Hemorrhages

Disc hemorrhages are splinter or flame-shaped hemorrhages oriented perpendicular to the optic disc margin.[1][2][3][4] Classically, these hemorrhages are located in the prelaminar optic disc, cross the peripapillary zone, and extend into the adjacent superficial retinal nerve fiber layer,[1][3][4] although they may not occupy the entire length from disc to retina.[4] Alternately, deeper disc hemorrhages may appear round and blotchy.[3] Less commonly, a disc hemorrhage may be noted in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer reaching within one disc diameter of the optic disc margin.[2]


Etiology

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Risk Factors

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General Pathology

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Pathophysiology

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Primary prevention

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Diagnosis

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History

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Physical examination

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Signs

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Symptoms

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Clinical diagnosis

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Diagnostic procedures

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Laboratory test

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Differential diagnosis

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Management

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General treatment

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Medical therapy

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Medical follow up

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Surgery

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Surgical follow up

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Complications

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Prognosis

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Additional Resources

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Uhler TA, Piltz-Seymour J. Optic disc hemorrhages in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: implications and recommendations. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19(2):89–94.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Schacknow PN, Samples JR eds. The glaucoma book: a practical, evidence-based approach to patient care. New York: Springer; 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Drance SM. Disc hemorrhages in the glaucomas. Surv Ophthalmol. 1989;33(5):331–337.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Feuer WJ, et al. Detection and prognostic significance of optic disc hemorrhages during the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(12):2137–2143.